TCP/IP’s Protocol Architecture – Get The Right Basics!

TCP/IP is very important when learning all you need for Network Fundamentals Course. Here, we will help you to understand all the basics that will grow your skills and knowledge when it comes to future tasks.

TCP/IP protocol’s architecture is actually a four-layer conceptual model. It is also known as DARPA model, and it looks like a map. We will now go through all four layers that make TCP/IP.

The first layer is known as a Network Interface Layer, sometimes called as the Network Access layer. This part of the TCP/IP model is placing the DARPA model’s packets on the medium network, and by such action, the layer receives the TCP/IP packets of the same network. The protocol’s architecture itself was actually designed to be literally independent of the network’s access method, from frame format to even medium.

The second layer is called the Internet Layer and it does all the work when it comes to packaging, addressing, and even routing functions. There are also the core protocols of the internet layer that you need to know about, and these are ARP, IP, ICMP, and IGMP. The IP protocol is a routable protocol and it does all the functions when it comes to fragmentation and reassembles of the IP packets, besides addressing and routing. The ARP, Address Resolution Protocol, which is inside the second layer, get the results for all the resolutions of the internet layer, but also for the hardware access. ICMP, the Internet Control Message Protocol provides many diagnostic functions and also reports all the errors which happen when IP packets are not delivered successfully. IGMP or the Internet Group Management Protocol manages all of the existing IPs that have multicast groups.

The third layer is known as a Transport Layer. It is also called Host-to-Host Transport layer. The third layer is responsible for the app’s layer providence with datagram and sessions services for communicating. There are also the core protocols for this layer, and they are known as TCP, Transmission Control Protocol and UDP, User Datagram Protocol. What TCP does is that it provides a connection-oriented, or easily said, one-to-one, service, which is communicationally very reliable. UDP is responsible for providing so-called one-to-many and one-to-one unreliable communications that are also connectionless.

The last layer, the number four, is called the Application Layer. It is responsible for providing the app such an ability that it can have the access to the services of all the other layers. Besides that, the Application Layer is defining the protocols which the app is using with a purpose to see the data exchanges. Every single day new protocols of the app’s layer are being developed. The most widely known ones are definitely HTTP, or Hypertext Transfer Protocol, SMTP, the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol, Telnet, known as a terminal emulation protocol, and FTP, a File Transfer Protocol.

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